March 3rd, 2008Matthias Lehmphul
(Thanks to German political scientist Matthias Lehmphul for the guest post -ed.)
The last man — so far — to die in the gas chamber, Walter LaGrand, was executed by the state of Arizona on March 3rd, 1999. He was one of just 11 prisoners gassed among the 1,099 executions to date since the U.S. death penalty was reinstated in 1976.
The United States introduced the gas chamber as an execution method in the beginning of the last century. The first death row inmate ever executed with poisoned air was Chinese migrant Gee Jon, who died at the Nevada State Prison in 1924. Relative to the other methods in use at the time — the electric chair, hanging, and the firing squad — gas was believed the most humane way of taking a person’s life.
It took 70 years for a court to finally recognize it as cruel and unusual punishment. In 1994 a federal judge ruled that the gas chamber violated the eighth amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Shortly before Walter LaGrand’s scheduled execution, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a stay whose logic would have banned lethal gas forever. This was overruled by the U.S. Supreme Court, leaving it as it remains today -– a backup or secondary option for putting a delinquent to death in five states: Arizona, California, Maryland, Missouri and Wyoming.
Death penalty for a murder in a bank
Walter LaGrand was following his brother Karl LaGrand, who Arizona had executed by lethal injection a week earlier. The brothers were sentenced to death on December 14th, 1984 for stabbing to death an employee of a bank in Marana, Arizona.
On January 7, 1982, 19-year-old Walter and 18-year-old Karl drove from Tucson to Marana to rob the Valley National Bank. Brandishing a toy gun, they ordered the bank manager, Ken Hartstock, to open the vault. Mr. Hartstock, however, did not have the complete combination. The brothers bound Mr. Hartstock’s hand together with electrical tape. When he attempted to shout at Karl, he was stabbed to death with a letter opener.
Another bank employee, Ms. Lopez, was in the room at the time of the murder. Her hands had also been bound, and she too suffered several stab wounds. She later became the state’s key witness.
When they were arrested, Karl LaGrand confessed to the killing and tried to shield his older brother from a capital murder charge by stating that Walter was not in the room when the stabbing occurred.
Ms. Lopez, however, testified that both brothers were surrounding Mr. Hartstock at the time of his death.
Between different worlds: A childhood without a home
At the time Walter and Karl LaGrand were born, their mother, Emma Maria Gebel, lived in Augsburg in what was then West Germany. The boys were cared for either by Emma’s mother or a babysitter. When Emma’s mom became ill and could no longer handle the children, the two kids were put into an orphanage.
During the two years they remained at this place they suffered an egregious lack of care. Deprivation of food and blankets were common punishments at this institution. When Emma took the boys back they already suffered insomnia and post-trauma disturbances. In 1966 Emma married Masie LaGrand, an American soldier stationed in Augsburg. He adopted the two boys and their older sister Patricia. Together they moved to the USA in 1967.
Soon their new dad was send to Vietnam. After returning from this war he never was the same; Emma and Masie divorced in 1973. The boys’ delinquent record can be tracked back to 1978 — when they first ran away from home and shoplifted.
Though Karl and Walter were adopted, they never were naturalized by the national immigration service. They remained German citizens — and that set the stage for another legal controversy in the days before their execution.
Power Politics: How the United States overrules international law
In a personal meeting with President Bill Clinton, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder expressed his concerns about the fate of both brothers. However, the main argument was not the execution method but the lack of consular assistance by the time of arrest.
The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (VCCR) is one of the bedrock documents of international law. Under Article 36 of the VCCR any arresting authority is obliged to promptly notify a detained foreign national of his or her right to contact and seek assistance from their consulate.
This article does not exempt foreign citizens from prosecution, nor does it give special rights under the law. It only insures that foreign nationals -– including Americans abroad –- have the means to defend themselves in a uniquely vulnerable situation. The United States and Germany are among the VCCR’s 169 signatories.
On January 22nd, 1998 the Special Rapporteur to the UN High Commissioner of Human Rights Bacre W. Ndiaye criticized the United States for its arbitrary disregard for treaty obligations like consular notification:
There seems to be a serious gap in the relations between federal and state governments, particularly when it comes to international obligations undertaken by the United States Government. The fact that the rights proclaimed in international treaties are already said to be a part of domestic legislation does not exempt the Federal Government from disseminating their provisions. Domestic laws appear de facto to prevail over international law, even if they could contradict the international obligations of the United States. (Extrajudicial summary on arbitrary executions, E/CN.4/1998/68/Add.3:C.108 — full document (.pdf))
Much too late, Germany opened a legal case against the United States on Walter LaGrand’s behalf at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague, Netherlands.
Karl LaGrand has been already executed when Berlin filed suit against Washington. Justice Christopher Weeramantry urged the United States to spare the life of Walter LaGrand. The White House argued it was a matter of the State of Arizona, outside the purview of federal authority. Under extreme international pressure, the Arizona Board of Pardons and Paroles took an unprecedented step: for the first time ever, it recommended an 60-day reprieve to await the decision of Germany’s suit against the United States at the ICJ.
Governor Jane D. Hull ignored it.
Past … and Prologue?
Walter and Karl LaGrand always had a close relationship and that did not change during their trial or time on death row. Until the end of 1998 they were celled beside one another and enjoyed the ability to talk freely. They held mirrors through the bars of their cells, so that they could see the other while talking. The chance to go out together on a work crew (when they were allowed to work) always excited them due to the fact that they were then able to see each other. In fact, they were emotionally so close that, if they have to die, they had expressed a preference to be executed on the same day.
Given a choice in their method of execution, both brothers tactically opted for the gas chamber to give the legal challenges to lethal gas a chance to save them. With those challenges foundering, both were offered a late switch to lethal injection in exchange for dropping suit.
Karl took the deal. Walter, as the New York Times put it, “opted for the gas, with its resonance of the Holocaust for Germans.”
Before the executioner switched the lever to initiate a chemical reaction between cyanide pellets (KCN) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) the inmate was given his last words. Walter LaGrand said:
To all my loved ones, I hope they find peace. To all of you here today, I forgive you and hope I can be forgiven in my next life.
This date’s gassing with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) took 18 minutes until the heart of Walter LaGrand stopped beating. While the execution took place witnesses left the room nauseated.
Will history repeat? There are some 125 foreign nationals on death row in the United States today. Another pair of German brothers, Michael and Rudi Apelt, are as of this writing waiting to be put to death in Arizona — perhaps, if they choose it, in the same gas chamber where Walter LaGrand perished.
Legal and diplomatic fallout
Still smarting from the LaGrands’ execution, German foreign minister Joschka Fischer said at the 55th Session of the Commission on Human Rights in Geneva on March 23rd, 1999:
States whose justice system kill are not meeting their responsibility to set an example to society. Europeans believe that the death penalty cannot be justified either ethically or legally and has not proved to be an effective means of combating crime.
The ICJ ruled in favor of Germany‘s LaGrand suit on June 26th, 2001, more than two years after the brothers had been put to death. It was the first time that a country won a case against the United States on this matter.
In 2005, facing multiplying challenges from death-sentenced foreign nationals similarly denied their rights under the VCCR, the Bush administration formally withdrew the United States from the ICJ’s oversight for such cases.
On this day..
- 1903: Edgar Edwards, sash weight killer – 2016
- 1882: Bob Jones and Billy Miller, murderers on the open road – 2015
- 1522: Vicent Peris, of the Revolt of the Brotherhood – 2014
- 1676: George Bromham and Dorothy Newman, on the Combe Gibbet – 2013
- 1865: Antone Richers, Galveston deserter – 2012
- Unspecified Year: Bigger Thomas – 2011
- 1955: Gerald Albert Gallego, like father like son – 2010
- 1323: Andrew Harclay, too chummy with the Scots –
“Before the executioner switched the lever to initiate a chemical reaction between cyanide pellets (KCN) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) the inmate was given his last words. Walter LaGrand said: To all my loved ones, I hope they find peace. To all of you here today, I forgive you and hope I can be forgiven in my next life. This date’s gassing with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) took 18 minutes until the heart of Walter LaGrand stopped beating. While the execution took place witnesses left the room nauseated.”
This gas execution on March 3, 1999 was almost certainly the last gas execution anywhere in the world. LaGrand had deliberately prolonged the agony of his own death to protest the inhumanity of the death penalty and especially gas executions. LaGrand had refused to assist his executioners by taking a deep, final breath on a signal from the warden in order to quickly ingest a lethal dose of cyanide. In his agony filled process of heroic resistance, however, LaGrand also undermined the holocaust hoax in which as many as 2,000 people at a time, 6,000 per day, had supposedly been gassed to death, also with cyanide, in just three minutes per gassing. That claim had been made by self-proclaimed “eyewitnesses” Vrba and Wetzler and widely publicized in the infamous War Refugee Board Report of mid-1944—even in the NY Times. That claim was simply a big LIE and technically impossible. A simple phone call in 1944 to any number of prison wardens in the US with gas chamber experience would have told anyone that the claim was absolute rubbish. But, not to worry about minor details—after the war, suitably prepped and tortured witnesses were found to support the BIG Lie! And, it goes on and on still today.
The execution of LaGrand in 1999 was also a flagrant violation of international law. The US decided shortly after an international court’s ruling in this regard that it would not be bound by international law. “In 2005, facing multiplying challenges from death-sentenced foreign nationals similarly denied their rights under the VCCR, the Bush administration formally withdrew the United States from the ICJ’s oversight for such cases.” America is truly exceptional—but we knew that already! LaGrand had been murdered by the State of Arizona and the federal government had done nothing to intervene.
Jimmy Lee Gray may have taken forty minutes to die in the Mississippi gas chamber in 1983 according to Dan Lohwasser of UPI whose story appears at length in the Anchorage Times. That story and others seem far more credible than the official account which claims Jimmy Lee Gray died in something more than eight minutes when the witness area was cleared out by the warden. No official time of death seems to even be available:
Self-assisted Holocaust Hoax
by Friedrich Paul Berg
On The Learning Channel on American television, some recent programs have described in graphic detail the horrible execution of one prisoner, David Lawson, who had refused to help his executioners. Lawson was executed on June 15, 1994 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In one of the last executions by gas, Lawson repeatedly held his breath for as long as possible and took only short breaths in between. By some accounts, the prisoner was also feebleminded. Perhaps for that reason he did something else which was unusual; he appealed to his executioners and to the witnesses during his execution. Again and again, as he was taking his short breaths, he cried out “I am human!” At first his cry was clearly audible but as the minutes went by he became less and less understandable and finally, more than ten minutes into the execution, there was just a mutter. He was dead only after eighteen minutes. The witnesses to the execution were horrified. The warden of the prison who had also supervised the execution was so shaken that he resigned. Because of this execution fiasco, executions with poison gas have been generally abandoned in the USA and replaced with lethal injections.
In preparation for the gas execution of David Lawson in 1994, one of the last gas chamber executions anywhere in the world, the above diagram was published to explain the procedure to the general public. It appeared in The News & Observer, Raleigh North Carolina, 11.6.1994, page14A. Lawson had even offered to let his execution be televised live on the “Phil Donahue Show” on nationwide TV.
Please note that the anticipated time to death was 10 to 14 minutes. The actual time to death was 18 minutes because Lawson deliberately held his breath in order to make a spectacle of his own execution. After the execution, the chamber was to be neutralized chemically with ammonia for 15 minutes and then vented for an additional half-hour before prison staffers, wearing gas masks, could actually remove Lawson’s corpse. Readers should contrast this real scenario with the fantastic holocaust scenarios where thousands of people were supposedly murdered in as little as three minutes with the manual removal of the masses of corpses beginning immediately thereafter—without any comparable safety precautions. Some of the specially-assigned Sonderkommando were supposedly even eating and smoking as they removed the corpses—obviously, without even wearing gas masks. But there are many other monumental problems with the holocaust scenarios as well. The gassing claims really are a monstrous Jewish HOAX!
It is now clear to the experts, especially those still waiting on death rows, that a quick and painless execution by gas requires the cooperation of the intended victim. Prisoners about to be gassed were usually encouraged to inhale deeply as soon as the cyanide was released in order to make their deaths come easily. However, if an intended victim was uncooperative, the execution could easily become a fiasco. By simply refusing to take the deep breaths needed to quickly ingest a lethal dose of cyanide, the agony–even under the most ideal conditions–could last for more than eighteen minutes.
An execution procedure using the most modern execution chamber technology with a lethal gas concentration that should have killed in only a few seconds was thwarted by at least one intended victim simply holding his breath. An execution procedure which should have been painless and quick had proved to be so impractical that it is now generally abandoned. An execution procedure which dispersed an extremely lethal concentration of cyanide within seconds and which theoretically should have killed within a few additional seconds, nonetheless took eighteen minutes to kill a single, feebleminded victim.
It should now be obvious that the Jewish Holocaust claims of mass gassings with Zyklon B and CO are rubbish. The sketchy and error-riddled bits of evidence for those claims show that Nazi gassing methods were primitive at best. Rather than dispersing a lethal concentration in seconds, those methods could have only dispersed marginally lethal concentrations after many minutes.
Most of the Holocaust executions, more than three million, were supposedly inflicted with Diesel exhaust. If the Diesels had been running at idle, even at fast idle, the exhaust would not have been lethal at all regardless of how long the exposure was; the exhaust would have contained less than 0.1% CO and about 18% oxygen. But, even with the engines operating under heavy loads, which in itself is only possible with the attachment of cumbersome equipment to the engines, the exhaust would have only been marginally lethal; the exhaust would have contained less than 0.4% CO and more than 6% oxygen.
For the alleged gassings with cyanide at Auschwitz and possibly Maidanek, but nowhere else according to the Holocaust story, the cyanide supposedly arose from granules of Zyklon-B dumped either on the heads or among the feet of the intended victims or into perforated columns. For any of those scenarios, the cyanide would have arisen from the granules slowly; that was after all the whole purpose of Zyklon-B: to release a measured quantity of cyanide slowly. Under normal conditions a layer of Zyklon-B 1/2 to 1 centimeter thick would have required half-an-hour to release half of its cyanide. The presence of a tightly packed crowd of intended victims or screening would have slowed the process even more. Although many might have died within the execution times that are claimed, many others would have survived–and that would have been a fiasco. What would the executioners have done with the survivors–return them to barracks where they could describe what happened or send them back in for a second gassing? After separating the obvious survivors from the dead, how would the executioners identify and dispose of those who were merely groggy or unconscious or feigning death? The answer is that any realistic mass gassing arrangement would have had to kill everyone. Otherwise, one would have had the same emotional strain on the executioners that supposedly led to mass gassings in the first place as an alternative to mass shootings.
The American experience with simple gas executions under ideal conditions proves that mass gassings of Jews would only have been possible if the Jewish victims–not just some of the Jews, but all– had assisted in their own mass executions; that is too unbelievable. The self-assisted Holocaust story is a hoax indeed.
Cyanide gas produces two different colours, both vitally important for the debate over the German labour-camps. In the human body, it produces a red-pink colour as it kills – whereas, as it soaks into brick walls, it will very slowly produce a blue hue. These got rather confused in wartime testimony. Zyklon-B was the commercial name for the cyanide held in granular form, as it was delivered to the labour-camps. A whole lot of testimonies of blue dead bodies were given after the war – caused by gassing – and we here argue that these are simply impossible.
The insecticide Zyklon was known as Zyklon-B and often called Zyklon-Blau because of the way it turned the walls blue.1 False witnesses kept testifying that blue-hue corpses were seen, imagining that the Zyklon somehow produced that.2
The so-called ‘Aktion Reinhardt’ camps, in the East of Poland – Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor – have stories of carbon monoxide gassing, with up to two million allegedly dead. These stories have no reference anywhere to pink corpses being seen at these camps.
Fake testimonies with impossible blue colour:
Dario Gabbai, “some of them were black and blue from the gas” (1:55 mins into this Shoah Foundation video) Gabbai also states this in Laurence Rees’ 2005 BBC program on Auschwitz, in episode 4, at 5:30.
Q: When you took out the bodies, were they warm or cold?
A: Warm. They were blue, black, and swollen. What I saw in the gas chamber was ghastly, a horrible scene…
Q: What color were the bodies after the gassings?
A: After the gassings they had a totally natural color, but after the blisters burst they turned red as fire.
Interview by Joseph Sacker in Gideon Grief’s book “We Wept Without Tears,”
Milton Buki: Of those gassed in a bunker: “the bodies were all naked and some had blue stains on them.” – Mattogno, The Bunkers of Auschwitz, p. 116, declaration released on December 15, 1989, in Jerusalem.
Natalia Zarembina: “the greenish tinge on the dead bodies does not disappear: it seems rather to become more distinct now in the new light of day. One of the grave-diggers, holding a corpse in his arms to throw it back on the cart, gazes into the greenish-grey face for a while. Years ago he saw similar faces: a deserted trench with corpses of soldiers. The same ghostly pallor. It is the discolouration of poison gas.” Quoted, Mattogno, Auschwitz: the first gassing, pp. 34-36,1943 Polish pamphlet.
Witnesses describing alleged gassed corpses agreed on the bodies being “greenish” (Kula), “bluish” (Banach), “green” (Hałgas), “blue” (Wolny), “bluish” (Kurant), “blue, almost purple-black” (Kielar), “bluish” (Weber), “bluish” (Gemański), “blue-black” (Petzold), “bluish” (Broad), whereas Natalia Zarembina speaks of a “ghostly pallor.” Mattogno Ibid., section 6.5.
Walter Petzold: “The nature of the corpses, on account of the terrible effect of the poison gas, was such that one could see only blue-black, bloated, and mushy flesh that had once belonged to human beings. Cyklon ‘B’ has the property of disintegrating a human body almost completely, of causing the human lung to burst and of turning the rest of the body into a jelly-like state” – quoted by Mattogno.
Stangl allegedly saw at Treblinka, ‘the pits full of black-blue corpses’ – Wiki, Treblinka
‘Their faces were blue, almost purplish’ – at Auschwitz, a recollection of mass gassing of Russian Prisoners of War in September 1941. Chil Raichman, The Last Jew of Treblinka, Pegasus Books LLC, 2011, p. 65ff., p. 67.
Yankel (Jankiel, Yankiel) Wiernik “There was no longer any beauty or ugliness, for they all were yellow from the gas.
Kurt Gerstein:“The bodies were tossed out, blue, wet with sweat and urine, the legs smeared with excrement and menstrual blood. ” one of his reports, PS-1553, p. 7.
Filip Müller: “Many had their mouths wide open, on their lips traces of whitish dried-up spittle. Many had turned blue, and many faces were disfigured almost beyond recognition from blows” – Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers, 1979, published by Ivan R Dee, Inc , 1999, p. 117
Daniel Bennahmias: “When the door finally was opened, the Sonderkommando was assaulted by an overhelming stench and the ghastly sight of putrid flesh. The bodies had turned blue and were bloated to double and treble their normal size, and Danny was among those who had to extricate them.” Rebecca Camhi Fromer, The Holocaust Odyssey of Daniel Bennahmias, Sonderkommando. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 1993, p. 53.
Polish officer who was sent to Treblinka with his Jewish wife on September 6, 1942, but escaped, in a report sent to the Polish government-in-exile in London on March 31, 1943: “I do not know what kind of gas is used, but I know from a colleague who worked three weeks in ‘Treblinka II’ that the corpses have a bluish color.” Mattogno/Graf Treblinka
Two colours have a central relevance to use of cyanide gas in WW2.
Firstly, there is the blue/turquoise colour which glows on the walls of the old delousing chambers, due to ferrocyanide, as in a tube of paint, ‘Prussian blue’. Iron in the wall bonded with the cyanide as it was absorbed into the walls seventy years ago. The Leuchter and Rudolf reports changed forever the whole Revisionist debate, by showing that the blue walls of the little delousing chambers in the German labour-camps, written out of History at Nuremberg, were the one places where cyanide was used on a regular basis. Those old walls are blue inside and out, showing how the cyanide gas penetrated right through them.
Seven tons of cyanide were delivered to Auschwitz just in the year 1942. That’s a lot. It was averred at Nuremberg that it was used for human gassing. Fortunately, Science can now resolve this big question for us.
Both Leuchter and Rudolf chipped away dozens of wall-samples from the old buildings, then measured the cyanide; and their results showed five thousand parts per million of total cyanide on average in the little old delousing-chamber walls, the ones that are generally a deep blue colour; and only one to three parts per million in what are alleged in the big textbooks to be where the mass human gassing took place: buildings which do not have any trace of blue in the walls. They found similar ‘normal’ levels in wall samples from the old kitchens and bathrooms – suggesting they were fumigated maybe once or twice a year with cyanide, as a hygiene precaution.
That’s a fairly open and shut case. Science results don’t come much better than that: a two-thousandfold differential, telling us where the cyanide was used – and where it wasn’t; indicating that the cyanide was used for a hygienic and not homicidal purpose.
Then, there is the pink. A body killed by inhaling hydrogen cyanide dies through oxygen-denial, as cyanide blocks the body’s oxygen-metabolism. It cannot pass from blood into the body tissues, and in the death-struggle the body will end up bright pink. But, no-one ever heard of a bright pink pile of bodies in a German labour-camp, that’s for sure.
Two gases were used to murder millions of Jews, so the official story has been telling us: cyanide and carbon monoxide. Hundreds of books have alleged this.
Carbon monoxide was supposed to be present in Diesel exhaust – except that it isn’t, but that’s another story. Holocaust orthodoxy claims One third of the Holocaust was caused by gassing with carbon monoxide, using Diesel exhaust fumes, the other two-thirds being gassed by cyanide. The latter was supposed to happen in big, long rooms with holes in the ceiling, the former more in travelling, mobile vans. There are (of course) no photos available of these alleged mobile death-vans.
It happens that death by carbon monoxide also leaves a bright pink body. Like cyanide gas it kills by denying oxygen to the body – but does so differently, by forming carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood. After that, the blood cannot any longer carry oxygen. So the two main gases allegedly used by the Germans to mass murder Jews both leave bright pink bodies. No one realised this around the time of Nuremberg, or indeed for several decades afterwards. It is a relatively recent argument. How could that be? No one will ever show you a pile of bodies allegedly gassed. No such remains were ever detected in any German labour-camp. But, you will be shown piles of very emaciated bodies which have clearly died from two causes: starvation, plus typhus. Those two were the killers. Sometimes if a body is anaemic this pink hue may not appear. But, that was not notably the case for labour-camp inmates. One would have expected at least 90% of deaths to show the pink hue, had CO or cyanide been a cause of death.
1. In all of the fatalities from acute carbon monoxide poisoning in which the victim was found dead at the scene, a conspicuous finding was the characteristic pink or cherry red post-mortem lividity of carboxyhemoglobin in the skin of the dependent portions of the body. These are readily distinguishable, because of their color, from ordinary post-mortem lividity.’ – American Journal of Public Health, March 1952, p.262 (Source: F. Berg)
2. Carbon monoxide poisoning may be diagnosed easily, because its inhalation in lethal quantities produces a characteristic cherry red coloration in the areas of hypostasis. A similar reddish hue is seen in cases of cyanide poisoning. – D.A.L. Bowen “Medical Investigations in Cases of Sudden Death,” British Medical Journal, 1 April 1967, page 35
3. Picture (above) from Textbook of Maritime Medicine . “Fig. 10.9.2: Bright red lividity on the dorsal side of the body as the expression of lethal carbon monoxide poisoning. Livor mortis is bright red in cases of carbon monoxide or hydrocyanide poisoning (or in cases where the corpse is kept in cold storage).
4. When carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin in the blood or myoglobin in the muscles it forms carboxyhaemoglobin and carboxymyoglobin respectively and they are responsible for the pink coloration. There are cases in which carbon monoxide poisoning does not result in the formation of a cherry pink coloration (Carson & Esslinger, 2001) and it can be difficult to spot when the victim is dark skinned – though it may be apparent in the lighter regions such as the palms of the hands or inside the lips or the tongue. – Alan Gunn, Essential Forensic Biology, 2009 pp. 21-22
5. Autopsy findings in CO deaths are fairly characteristic. In Caucasians, the first impression one gets on viewing the body is that the person looks very healthy. The pink complexion is caused by coloration of the tissue by carboxyhemoglobin, which has a characteristic cherry-red or bright-pink appearance that can be seen in the tissue. Cherry-red livor mortis suggests the diagnosis even before autopsying the individual – Vincent DeMaio, Dominick DeMaio. Forensic Pathology, 2nd ed. 2001 p. 395.
6. A pink lividity, rather than the usual purple-red, raises the possibility of death from carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide or hypothermia –Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences / edited by Jay Siegel, Geoffrey Knupfer, Pekka Saukko, 2000 p. 1158, article “Autopsy”
7. Cyanide overdose can be fatal six to eight minutes after ingestion. Rapidly causes weakness, confusion, coma, and pink skin from high blood oxygen saturation. Produces an almond-like odor. – Forensic Science: Fundamentals and Investigations / Anthony J. Bertino 2012 p. 258
There were conditions of deep horror at the camps, as found when they were liberated by the Allies, but that horror was not designed by the Germans to be there. The lie at Nuremberg of mass human gassing was mainly a case of the Allies believing their own propaganda: the BBC started promulgating the gassing stories in 1942.
The chemical evidence clearly shows that Zyklon was used from mid-1942 onwards exactly as the Germans said it was used viz for delousing clothes, in purpose-built delousing chambers; and that diesel exhaust is not lethal, because it does not contain sufficient carbon monoxide to kill people.
A study of alleged carbon monoxide poisoning concluded, ‘witnesses such as Reder, “Szlamek” and Rosenberg would have observed a very large number of bodies showing cherry red discolouration. That not a single one of the alleged eye-witnesses to mass gassings at the above listed camps mention the highly eye-catching type of discolouration that most often accompany lethal carbon monoxide poisoning is in itself enough to throw doubt upon the alleged truthfulness of their statements’
1 There was an earlier Zyklon-A which had the cyanide in liquid form.
2 See the CODOH thread, ‘Testimonies on corpse colour.’