History of Jewish Expulsions & Pogroms

History of Jewish Expulsions & Pogroms

 

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TIMELINE OF JEWISH PERSECUTIONS AND POGROMS

rabbi_08cryingA correspondent who wishes to remain anonymous has sent us this Timeline of Jewish Persecutions and Pogroms “as a reminder of the unremitting and pathological antisemitism that has bedeviled mankind from the earliest times up to the present.”

He (or she) adds the grim warning: “Unless this pathological condition is stamped out at once, with all negative criticisms of Israel and Jews being criminalized and made subject to the severest penalties, a second Holocaust is inevitable. In addition, Holocaust denial should be made a capital crime in every single country in the world without delay and without exception.”

This individual of unknown sex and ethnicity (signed “SZ”) has challenged me to publish this Timeline of Jewish Persecutions and Pogroms “as an invaluable work of reference”, and adds: “If you don’t, a thousand curses on you and your antisemitic readers!”

—  John Scott Montecristo, Editor

1.  Pre-Christian Era

(Some significant dates have been emphasized in bold print)

580 B.C. Babylon/Judea “Nebuchadnezzar conquers Judea, burns Temple”

38 B.C. “Alexandria, Egypt” Mob Attacks

3 B.C. Egypt Expulsion

2.  The Roman Empire

66 C.E. “Alexandria, Egypt” Mob Attacks

70 C.E. Jerusalem Expulsion following revolt

250 C.E. Carthage Expulsion

224 C.E. Italy Forced Conversion

325 C.E. Jerusalem Expulsion renewed by Constantine

351 C.E Persia Book Burning

357 C.E. Italy Property Confiscation

379 C.E. Milan Synagogue Burning

415 C.E. Alexandria Expulsion

418 C.E. Minorca Forced Conversion

468 C.E. Babylon/Judea Expulsion

469 C.E. Ipahan Holocaust

470 C.E. Babylon/Judea Expulsion

489 C.E. Antioch Synagogue Burning

3.  The Dark Ages

506 C.E. Daphne Synagogue Burning

519 C.E. Ravenna Synagogue Burning

554 C.E. Diocese of Clement (France) Expulsion

561 C.E. Diocese of Uzes (France) Expulsion or Conversion

582 C.E Merovingia Forced Conversion

612 C.E. Visigoth Spain Expulsion

624 C.E. Hejaz Expulsion

628 C.E. Byzantium Forced Conversion

629 C.E. Merovingia Forced Conversion

633 C.E. Toledo Forced Conversion

638 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings

642 C.E. Visigothic Empire Expulsion

653 C.E. Toledo Expulsion

681 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion

693 C.E. Toledo Jews Enslaved

722 C.E. Byzantium Judaism Outlawed

855 C.E. Italy Expulsion

876 C.E. Sens Expulsion

897 C.E. Narbonne Land Confiscation

945 C.E. Venice Ban on Sea Travel

4.  The Early Middle Ages

1009 C.E. Orleans Massacre

1012 C.E. “Rouen, Limoges & Rome” Massacre

1012 C.E. “Mayence, Germany” Expulsion

1021 C.E. Rome Jews Burned Alive

1063 C.E. Spain Massacre

1095 C.E. Lorraine Massacre

1096 C.E. Northern France & Germany 1/3 of Jewish Population Massacred as part of the First Crusade

1096 C.E. Hungary Massacre

1096 C.E. Ralisbon Massacre

1099 C.E. Jerusalem Jews Burned Alive

1100 C.E. Kiev Pogrom

1140 C.E. Germany Massacres

1142-1212 C.E. North Africa Massacres

1146 C.E. Rhine Valley Massacre as part of the Second Crusade

1147 C.E. Wurzburg Massacre

1147 C.E. Belitz (Germany) Jews Burned Alive

1147 C.E. “Carenton, Ramenu & Sully (France)” Massacres

1171 C.E. Blois Stake Burnings

1181 C.E. France Expulsion/Property Confiscation

1181 C.E. England Property Confiscation

1188 C.E. London & York Mob Attacks

1189 C.E. England Mob Attacks against Jews following coronation of Richard the Lionheart/ Property Confiscation.

1190 C.E. Norfolk Jews Burned Alive

1191 C.E. Bray (France) Jews Burned Alive

1195 C.E. France Property Confiscation

1209 C.E. Beziers Massacre

1215 C.E. Rome Jews Forced to Wear Badges

1215 C.E. Toulouse (France) Mass Arrests

1218 C.E. England Jews Forced to Wear Badges

1231 C.E. Rome Inquisition Established

1236 C.E. France Forced Conversion/Massacre

1239 C.E. London Massacre & Property Confiscation

1240 C.E. France Talmud Confiscated

1240 C.E. England Book Burning

1240 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion

1242 C.E. Paris Talmud Burned

1244 C.E. Oxford Mob Attacks

1255 C.E. England Public Hangings

1261 C.E. Canterbury Mob Attacks

1262 C.E. London Mob Attacks

1264 C.E. London Mob Attacks

1267 C.E. Vienna Jews Forced to Wear Horned Hats

1270 C.E. “Weissenberg, Magdeburg, Armstadt, Coblenz, Singzig, and Erfurt” Jews Burned Alive

1278 C.E. Genoa (Spain) Mob Attacks

1283 C.E. Mayence & Bacharach Mob Attacks

1285 C.E. Munich Jews Burned Alive

1290 C.E. England Expulsion

1298 C.E. “Franconia, Bavaria & Austria” “100,000 Jews slaughtered under command of German knight Rindfleisch”

5.  The Later Middle Ages

1306 C.E. France Expulsion by Philip the Fair (Same King who burned the Templars)

1308 C.E. Strasbourg Jews Burned Alive

1320 C.E. Toulouse & Perpigon 120 Communities Massacred & Talmud Burned

1321 C.E. Teruel Public Executions

1328 C.E. Estella “5,000 Jews Slaughtered”

1348 C.E. France & Spain Jews Burned Alive

1348 C.E. Switzerland Expulsion

1349 C.E. “Worms, Strasbourg, Oppenheim, Mayence, Erfurt, Bavaria & Swabia” Jews Burned Alive

1349 C.E. Heilbronn (Germany) Expulsion

1349 C.E. Hungary Expulsion

1349 C.E. Saxony Expulsion

1354 C.E. Castile (Spain) “12,000 Jews Slaughtered”

1360 C.E. Hungary Banned

1368 C.E. Toledo “8,000 Jews Slaughtered”

1370 C.E. Belgium Expulsion

1370 C.E. “Majorca., Penignon & Barcelona” Mob Attack

1377 C.E. Huesca (Spain) Jews Burned Alive

1380 C.E. Paris Mob Attack

1384 C.E. Nordlingen Mass Murder

1388 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion

1389 C.E. Prague Mass Slaughter & Book Burning

1391 C.E. “Castille, Toledo, Madrid, Seville, Cordova, Cuenca & Barcelona” Forced Conversions & Mass Murder

1394 C.E. Germany Expulsion

1394 C.E. France Expulsion

1399 C.E. Posen (Poland) Jews Burned Alive

6.  The Renaissance

1400 C.E. Prague Stake Burnings

1407 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack

1415 C.E. Rome Talmud Confiscated

1420 C.E. Austria Expelled by Albrecht V

1422 C.E. Austria Jews Burned Alive

1422 C.E. Austria Expulsion

1424 C.E. Fribourg & Zurich Expulsion

1426 C.E. Cologne Expulsion

1431 C.E. Southern Germany Jews Burned Alive

1432 C.E. Savory Expulsion

1438 C.E. Mainz Expulsion

1439 C.E. Augsburg Expulsion

1444 C.E. Netherlands Expulsion

1449 C.E. Toledo Public Torture &. Burnings

1453 C.E. Franconia Expulsion

1453 C.E. Breslau Expulsion

1453 C.E. Poland Citzenship revoked

1454 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion

1456 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion

1463 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack

1473 C.E. Andalusia Mob Attack

1480 C.E. Venice Jews Burned Alive

1481 C.E. Seville Stake Burnings

1484 C.E. “Cuidad Real, Guadalupe, Saragossa & Teruel” Jews Burned Alive

1485 C.E. Vincenza (Italy) Expulsion

1486 C.E. Toledo Jews Burned Alive

1488 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings

1490 C.E. Toledo Public Executions

1491 C.E. Astorga Public Torture & Execution

1492 C.E. Sicily Expulsion

1492 C.E. Spain Choice between Expulsion or Conversion (When the Rivero family became Catholic)

1495 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion by Grand Duke Alexander

1497 C.E. Portugal Expulsion

1499 C.E. Germany Expulsion

1506 C.E. Lisbon Mob Attack

1510 C.E. Berlin Public Torture & Execution

1510 C.E. Brandenberg Expulsion

1510 C.E. Prussia Expulsion

1514 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion

1519 C.E. Regensburg Expulsion

1539 C.E. Cracow & Portugal Stake Burnings

1540 C.E. Naples and Sardinia Expulsion

1542 C.E. Bohemia Expulsion

1550 C.E. Genoa and Venice Expulsion

1551 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion

1553 C.E. Rome Talmud burned

1555 C.E. Pesaro Expulsion

1556 C.E. Sokhachev (Poland) Public Torture & Execution

1559 C.E. Austria Expulsion

1561 C.E. Prague Expulsion

1567 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion

1569 C.E. Italy and Papal States Expulsion

1571 C.E. Brandenburg Expulsion

1582 C.E. Hungary Banned a second time

1582 C.E. Netherlands Expulsion

1593 C.E. Brunswick Expulsion

1593 C.E. “Brandenburg, Austria” Expulsion

1593 C.E. Italy Banned a second time

1597 C.E. “Cremona, Pavia & Lodi” Expulsion

1614 C.E. Frankfort Expulsion

1615 C.E. Worms Expulsion

1619 C.E. Kiev Expulsion

1635 C.E. Vilna Mob Attack

1637 C.E. Cracow Public Torture & Execution

1647 C.E. Lisbon Jews Burned Alive

1648 C.E. Poland 1/3 of Jewry Slaughtered

1649 C.E. Ukraine Expulsion

1649 C.E. Hamburg Expulsion

1652 C.E. Lisbon Stake Burnings

1654 C.E. New Amsterdam Expelled by Peter Stuyvesant (order later retracted)

1654 C.E. Little Russia Expulsion

1656 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion

1660 C.E. Seville Jews Burned Alive

1663 C.E Cracow Public Torture &. Execution

1664 C.E. Lemberg Mob Attack

1669 C.E. Oran (North Africa) Expulsion

1670 C.E. Vienna Expulsion

1671 C.E. Minsk Mob Attacks

1681 C.E. Vilna Mob Attacks

1682 C.E. Marseilles Expulsion

1682 C.E. Cracow Mob Attacks

1687 C.E. Posen Mob Attacks

7.  The Modern Age

1712 C.E. Sandomir Expulsion

1727 C.E. Russia Expulsion

1738 C.E. Wurtemburg Expulsion

1740 C.E. Liule Russia Expulsion

1744 C.E Hungary. Banned for the third time by Queen Maria Theresa, the satanic antisemite:

“Henceforth, no Jew, no matter under what name, will be allowed to remain here without my written permission. I know of no other troublesome pest within the state than this race, which impoverishes the people by their fraud, usury and money-lending and commits all deeds which an honorable man despises. Subsequently, they have to be removed and excluded from here as much as possible.”

1744 C.E. Livonia Expulsion

1745 C.E. Moravia Expulsion by order of the King (to halt mob attacks on Jews)

1753 C.E. Kovad (Lithuania) Expulsion

1757 C.E. Kamenetz Talmud Burning

1761 C.E. Bordeaux Expulsion

1768 C.E. Kiev “3,000 Jews Slaughtered”

1772 C.E. Russia Expulsion to the Pale of Settlement

1775 C.E. Warsaw Expulsion

1789 C.E. Alsace Expulsion

1790 C.E. Morocco “Expulsion, villages destroyed”

1801 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attack

1804 C.E. Russian Villages Expulsion

1808 C.E. Russian Countryside Expulsion

1814 C.E. Norway Rescinds ban on Jews

1815 C.E. Lubeck & Bremen Expulsion

1815 C.E. “Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria” Expulsion

1820 C.E. Bremes Expulsion

1843 C.E. Austria & Prussia Expulsion

1850 C.E. New York City “500 People, Led by Police, Attacked &. Wrecked Jewish Synagogue”

1862 C.E. United States Expelled by Ulysses S. Grant (order later retracted)

1866 C.E Galatz (Romania) Expulsion

1871 C.E. Odena Mob Attack

1882 C.E. Russia “Laws banishing Jews relaxed under Alexander II. Following his assassination by a Jewish plot, expulsion of 1772 restored. ”

1887 C.E. Slovakia Mob Attacks

1897 C.E. Kantakuzenka (Russia) Mob Attacks

1898 C.E. Rennes (France) Mob Attack

1899 C.E. Nicholayev Mob Attack

1900 C.E. Konitz (Prussia) Mob Attack

1902 C.E. Poland Widespread Pogroms

1904 C.E. “Manchuria, Kiev & Volhynia” Widespread Pogroms

1905 C.E. Zhitomir (Yolhynia) Mob Attacks

1919 C.E Bavaria Expulsion

1915 C.E. Georgia (U.S.A.) Leo Frank Lynched

1919 C.E. Mongolia Pogrom

1919 C.E. Prague Wide Spread Pogroms

1920 C.E. Munich & Breslau Mob Attacks

1922 C.E. Boston, MA “Lawrence Lowell, President of Harvard, calls for Quota Restrictions on Jewish Admission”

1926 C.E. Uzbekistan Pogrom

1928 C.E. Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses

1929 C.E. Lemberg (Poland) Mob Attacks

1930 C.E. Berlin Mob Attack on Jews

1933 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attacks on Jews

1933 C.E. Europe Immigrant Jews banned from citizenship.

1935 C.E. Germany “Loss of citizenship, imprisonment in slave labor camps.”

1948 C.E. Libya Pogrom

1969 C.E. Iraq Executions

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Edward I Expells the Jews from England(1290)

In 1290 King Edward I of England (Longshanks)Offsite Link issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.

“Lasting for the rest of the Middle Ages, it would be over 350 years until it was formally overturned in 1656. The edict was not an isolated incident but the culmination of over 200 years of conflict on the matters of usury. The first Jewish communities of significant size came to England with William the ConquerorOffsite Link in 1066. On the conquest of England, William instituted a feudal system in the country, whereby all estates formally belonged to the king, who appointed lords over vast estates, subject to duties and obligations (financial and knights) to the king. Under the lords were further subjects such as serfs, which were bound and obligated to their lords. Merchants had a special status in the system as did Jews. Jews were declared to be direct subjects of the King, unlike the rest of the population. This had advantages for Jews, in that they were not tied to any particular lord, but were subject to the whims of the king. Every successive King formally reviewed a royal charter granting Jews the right to remain in England. Jews did not enjoy any of the guarantees of Magna Carta of 1215.

“Economically, Jews played a key role in the country. The church at the time strictly forbade usury, or the lending of money for profit. This left a hole in the heart of the European economy that Jews quickly filled (canon law was not considered to apply to Jews, and Judaism permits loans with interest Offsite Linkbetween Jews and non-Jews).  As a consequence, some Jews made large amounts of money. However, taking advantage of their unique status as his direct subjects, the King could expropriate Jewish assets in the form of taxation. He levied heavy taxes on Jews at will without having to summon Parliament.  The Jewish community acted as a kind of giant monetary filter: Jews collected interest on money loaned to the people which the King could take at his pleasure.

“Jews acquired a reputation as extortionate money lenders which made them extremely unpopular with both the Church and the general public. While antisemitism was widespread in Europe, medieval England was particularly antisemitic. An image of the Jew as a diabolical figure who hated Christ started to become widespread, and antisemitic myths such as the Wandering Jew and ritual murders originated and spread throughout England; as well as Scotland and Wales.  Jews were said to hunt for children to murder before Passover so they could use their blood to make matzah. Antisemitism on a number of occasions sparked riots where many Jews were murdered, most famously in 1190 when over a hundred Jews were massacred in the city of York.

“The situation only got worse for Jews as the 13th century progressed. In 1218, England became the first European nation to require Jews to wear a marking badge. Taxation grew increasingly intense. Between 1219 and 1272, 49 levies were imposed on Jews for a total of 200,000 marks, a huge amount of money.  The first major step towards expulsion took place in 1275, with the Statute of Jewry. The statute outlawed all usury and gave Jews fifteen years to readjust. However, guilds as well as popular prejudice made Jewish movement into mercantile or agricultural pursuits almost impossible.

“While in GasconyOffsite Link in 1287, Edward ordered English Jews expelled. All their property was seized by the crown and all outstanding debts payable to Jews were transferred to the King’s name. It was a bleak sign of things to come. Edward’s personal views on Jews are something of a mystery. In the glimpses we have of his dealings with them, he seems interested but unsympathetic. His mother, however, does seem to have been anti-semitic. Whatever his personal feelings, by the time he returned to England in 1289 Edward was deeply in debt. The next summer he summoned his knights to impose a steep tax. To make the tax more palatable, Edward in exchange essentially offered to expel all Jews. The heavy tax was passed, and three days later, on July 18, the Edict of Expulsion was issued. One official reason for the expulsion was that Jews had neglected to follow the Statute of Jewry. The edict of expulsion was widely popular and met with little resistance, and the expulsion was quickly carried out.

“The Jewish population in England at the time was relatively small. While population estimates vary, probably less than 1% of England was Jewish; perhaps 3,000 people.  The expulsion process went fairly smoothly, although there were a few horrific stories. One story told of a captain taking a ship full of Jews to the Thames while the tide was going out and convincing them to go out for a walk with him. He then lost them and made it back to his ship before the tide came back in, leaving them all to drown. Other stories exist of Jews being robbed or killed, but the majority of the Jews seem to have crossed the channel in safety” (Wikipedia article on Edict of Expulsion, accessed 02-15-2009).

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