US Congress to Undermine US-Russia INF Treaty and Entire Existing Nuclear Arms Control Architecture

The House and Senate are currently considering defense authorization legislation which, if passed into law, would start dismantling some of the bedrock agreements of US-Russian arms control – the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty), as well as longstanding US–Russia arms control efforts. The treaty eliminated all ground-based nuclear and conventional missiles, as well as their launchers, with ranges of 500–1,000 kilometers (310–620 mi) (short-range) and 1,000–5,500 km (620–3,420 mi) (intermediate-range). Signed in December 1987 by President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, the INF deal is accredited with significantly reducing the threat of nuclear confrontation and accelerating the end of the Cold War.

The landmark deal for the first time eliminated an entire class of missiles in Europe and set up a new framework for verifying compliance. Russia and the US have recently exchanged accusations of breaching the treaty but there have been no substantive talks on the issue.

Both versions of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2018 require the development of medium-range missiles the INF Treaty bans. They authorize programs of development on a new US mobile ground-based cruise missile (GLCM) with a range of between 500 and 5,500 kilometers.

Politico cites the Office of Management and Budget, saying it “unhelpfully ties the Administration to a specific missile system, which would limit potential military response options”. Legal experts are also criticizing the legislation as congressional overreach, saying the Senate can only ratify treaties and the president alone can negotiate or pull out of them. The House has no role whatsoever in approving treaties, Politico notes.

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Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

The House version states that if Russia failed to comply with the INF terms within 15 months of the bill’s enactment, the US would no longer be legally bound by the treaty as a matter of domestic law. A similar provision could be inserted into the Senate version of the bill.

Russia’s alleged violations serve as a pretext for deploying shorter and intermediate range weapons to strike other countries, like North Korea. The US Army is believed to lack sufficient firepower in a large-scale conflict, such as missiles that can hit targets hundreds of miles awayDavid Johnson, a military analyst at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment, believes that “the lack of long-range firepower in the Army [is] a problem that could haunt land forces in a war in Eastern Europe”.

Army Deputy Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. John Murray told lawmakers about the need for a “long-range precision fires” program to develop a powerful new missile that can reach targets 499 kilometers out, or about 310 miles. The range has to stay below 500 kilometers to comply with the INF treaty. If it’s not in force anymore, then the Army will get what it wants.

Mark Gunzinger of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) thinks that pulling out from the treaty is the right thing to do. He believes that future ground-based strike systems could help the US suppress Russia’s advanced integrated air defense systems and freedom of action in the event of a conflict. The intermediate range missiles could help the American military gain more advantage over China and North Korea.

“Perhaps the time is right for a serious debate over the US withdrawing from the INF Treaty”, Gunzinger says.

Michaela Dodge of the Heritage Foundation affirms that, the Treaty is no longer relevant, and the US should withdraw.

Launching a program to develop a new ground-based cruise missile would add to the fact that some missiles to be eliminated under the terms of the INF Treaty are used as targets for ballistic missile defense tests, while Aegis Ashore systems use the launching pads that can be used to fire medium range Tomahawks. The Senate version of the bill says the US has no intention to tear up the treaty but the need to close the capability gap opened by Russia is given as a reason for launching the program. The two things contradict each other. The sum of these factors make the US actually abandon the agreement while not leaving it officially.

The same thing applies to Iran. Formally, the United States has not torn up the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran. At the same time, imposing sanctions on Tehran over its ballistic missile program makes the agreement deprived of any substance. No matter what pretext is used, the fact is that punitive measures against Iran are in place. It makes Iranians put into doubt the need to further comply with the JCPOA.

The US-Russian relations under ex-President Obama left much to be desired but the issue of violating the INF Treaty was not on the agenda. If the medium-range missile development program had been launched, the Congress would have been in violation of the international agreement. It did not occur then, but it is happening now under President Trump.

This would put into doubt the reputation of the United States as a reliable partner. If one international agreement is breached by the Congress, any other treaty can be abrogated, too.

Other defense programs would suffer, with money directed to implement the program in violation of the INF. The defense budget already includes funding to develop a fleet of nuclear air-launched cruise missiles. The more, the better?

No European ally has given consent to have the weapon on its soil. Would Europeans agree to have nuclear weapons on their soil? It makes the 1983 protests leap to memory.

The US will not benefit greatly if it withdraws from the treaty. It does not have an intermediate-range ballistic missile, and developing a new one will take time and effort. The bill does not mention intermediate ballistic capability anyway. Land-based cruise missiles would not tip the balance into US favor because they are too slow to effectively knock out critical infrastructure sites in a first unexpected strike. The US military need ballistic missiles with short flight times to decapitate the enemy but the Congress wants a cruise, not a ballistic, missile.

If Europe-based cruise missiles are fired, Russia will have enough time for a launch-upon-attack against those European states, which host the weapons, and the United States.

With the INF Treaty effective no more, Moscow will be free to deploy intermediate-range missiles without restriction. In theory, its Iskander-M systems could be armed with ballistic and cruise missiles with extended range, while the American military has nothing to respond with.

The House version has a provision that would prohibit the use of funds to extend New START until Russia complies with the INF treaty. But the conclusion, whoever makes it, about Russia’s compliance can be biased or outright wrong. Signed into law, the bill would undermine the whole architecture of arms control. The New START and the INF are the only two treaties still in place. Without them, the way to uncontrolled arms race would be unhindered.

The Congress would exceed its authority. It actually forces the administration to abandon an international treaty. The Senate can ratify international treaties, not abrogate them. The House does not vote on them. Both versions of the bill encroach on the president’s foreign policy prerogatives the same way the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act does.

The bill includes provisions to undermine the treaty while the opportunities offered by the Special Verification Commission (SVC) envisioned by the INF treaty are far from being exhausted. The parties could use the SVC venue to consider additional confidence-building measures and information exchanges that take into account technological and political developments that have occurred recently.

The bill wants the Open Skies Treaty that could be used for INF verification to be deprived of funds. The observation capabilities could be upgraded. The NATO-Russia Council could serve as another mechanism to address specific security concerns. A lot of things could be done to preserve arms control regime and prevent its crisis. The world is facing the most serious and comprehensive crisis in the fifty-year history of nuclear arms control with almost every channel of negotiation deadlocked and the entire system of existing arms control agreements in jeopardy. The US Congress appears to be adamant in its desire to make things even worse.

Andrei Akulov is a retired colonel and Moscow-based expert on international security issues.

Featured image is from the author.


Mosul Massacre Latest in Iraqi Genocide – US Alliance War Crimes

Demand ICC & BDS

It is estimated that 40,000 people died in the US Alliance’s Mosul Massacre involving the explosive demolition of a huge city of 2 million inhabitants. This is but the latest atrocity in an Iraqi Holocaust and Iraqi Genocide. Iraqi deaths from Western violence and imposed deprivation total 9 million  since the British invasion in 1914. The post-tsunami peaceful settlement of the Islamist insurgency in Aceh, Indonesia,  demonstrated a humane alternative to genocide. US Alliance war crimes demand comprehensive Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS).

The Mosul Massacre is but the latest in a Western-imposed Iraqi Holocaust and Iraqi Genocide that has been ongoing since 1914 in oil-rich Iraq [1-9]. Leading UK Middle East journalist, Patrick Cockburn, reporting on the latest awful episode of the Iraqi Genocide in Mosul, stated (2017):

“More than 40,000 civilians were killed in the devastating battle to retake Mosul from Isis, according to intelligence reports revealed exclusively to The Independent – a death toll far higher than previous estimates. Residents of the besieged city were killed by Iraqi ground forces attempting to force out militants, as well as by air strikes and Isis fighters, according to Kurdish intelligence services. Hoshyar Zebari, until recently a senior minister in Baghdad, told The Independent that many bodies “are still buried under the rubble”. “The level of human suffering is immense,” he said. “Kurdish intelligence believes that over 40,000 civilians have been killed as a result of massive firepower used against them, especially by the federal police, air strikes and Isis itself,” Mr Zebari added… The UN estimated that Mosul had 1.2 million inhabitants at the start of the siege” [10].

Lest we forget – a Holocaust involves the deaths of a huge number of people, and Genocide is defined by Article 2 of the UN Geneva Convention which states:

“In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:

a) Killing members of the group;

b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group” [11].

For all that ISIS was evidently barbarous and fanatical with an extremist Islamic ideology, a peaceful alternative to more US Alliance-imposed Iraqi Genocide through the near-total destruction of the Iraqi cities of Mosul, Ramadi and Fallujah was always possible. Thus, for example, the fundamentalist Muslim, Sharia Law-committed Free Aceh Movement (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or GAM) fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh insurgency from 1976 to 2005, during which over 15,000 were killed. After the calamitous 2004 tsunami (170,000 Indonesians killed, mostly in Sumatra) there was a  peace agreement between Aceh and the Indonesian Government in 2005 involving cessation of violence and considerable Acinese autonomy. The killing stopped at the price of imposition of Sharia Law in Aceh – thus, for example, unmarried lovers, women with a penchant for “immodest dress”, homosexuals and apostates would have their human rights and civil rights grossly violated and they would have to move from Aceh to elsewhere in Indonesia to avoid extreme medieval punishment ranging from caning to execution, but at least the war and killing stopped [12].

The 40,000 killed in the Mosul Massacre must be placed in the wider context of about 9 million Iraqis who have died untimely deaths from violence or imposed deprivation in over a century of Western wars against remote but oil-rich Iraq since the British invaded and conquered Iraq in 1914 with the help of British Empire colonial Indian forces and the nascent Australian air force [1, 3]. A technical examination of Iraqi history shows that the UK and its former lackey and now US lackey, Australia, are presently into their 8th Iraq War in just over a  century. Indeed this appalling Western violence against Iraq is but part of a wider scene of Western violence against Humanity that has been ongoing for the last millennium in which the  British have invaded 193 countries, Australia 85, France 82, the US 70 (50 after WW2), Germany 39, Japan 30, Russia 25, Canada 25, Apartheid Israel 12, China 2 and India none [3, 4, 13-18].

Detailed below are key features of the ongoing post-1914 Western Iraqi Holocaust and Iraqi Genocide that has been associated with an estimated Iraqi body count of a total of circa 9 million violent deaths and avoidable deaths from imposed deprivation.

  1. 9 million Iraqi violent deaths and avoidable deaths from imposed deprivation, 1914-1917.

(a) Assuming excess mortality of Iraqis under British rule or hegemony (1914- 1948) was the  same as for Indians under the British [1, 19]. one can estimate from Iraqi population data ([20]. that Iraqi avoidable  deaths from deprivation under British occupation and hegemony from 1914-1950 totalled about 4 million.

(b) Iraqi deaths from imposed deprivation under deadly UN Sanctions (1990-2003) totalled 1.7 million and Iraqi Gulf War violent deaths totalled 0.2 million, for a total of 1.9 million Iraqi deaths from violence or imposed deprivation in the Sanctions period of 1990-2003.

(c) US Just Foreign Policy has used data from top US epidemiologists to determine 1.5 million violent Iraqi deaths under occupation in 2003-2011 [21],  to which we must add a further 1.2 million Iraqi deaths from war-imposed deprivation for a total of 2.7 million Iraqi deaths from violence or deprivation under US Alliance occupation (2003-2011).

(d) Since the “official” US withdrawal in 2011 one can estimate from the latest Mosul Massacre data that a further 0.1 million Iraqis have died violently in the US-backed Iraqi Civil War and UN Population Division data  indicate that a further  0.3 million Iraqis have died from deprivation, for a total of 0.4 million Iraqi deaths from violence or deprivation since the US withdrawal in 2011.

Thus, ignoring violent Iraqi deaths under the British occupation and violent Iraqi deaths associated with the US-backed Iraq-Iran War, one can estimate about 8.8 million  Iraqi deaths from UK or US  violence or imposed deprivation in the century after the 1914 invasion of Iraq by Britain. Refugees from the US Alliance invasion of Iraq totalled 5-6 million [1, 2]. This is an ongoing  Iraqi Holocaust and Iraqi Genocide. Even if the killing were to stop, an estimated circa 50,000 Iraqis presently  die avoidably each year from deprivation in war-devastated Iraq.

  1. Depraved indifference of the International Criminal Court (ICC).

As discussed further below, the 2003 invasion of was illegal and thus a war crime. The International Criminal Court (ICC) is a cowardly, racist, degenerate and look-the-other-way organization that, apart from prosecuting Balkan war criminals,  confines its  prosecutions to non-European war criminals.  The ICC is thus a holocaust-ignoring and genocide-ignoring organization that is holocaust-complicit and genocide-complicit through its depraved indifference to Western imposed holocausts and genocides such as the ongoing Palestinian Genocide ( 90% of Palestine now  ethnically cleansed of Indigenous inhabitants, 2 million Palestinian deaths from violence, 0.1 million, or imposed deprivation, 1.9 million, since 1935) [23], the ongoing Iraqi Genocide (9 million deaths from violence or imposed deprivation since 1914) [1],  the ongoing Afghan Holocaust and Afghan Genocide (6 million deaths from violence or imposed deprivation since 2001, 12 million deaths from  violence or imposed deprivation since the US-backed overthrow of secular governance in Afghanistan in 1978) [3, 24], and the ongoing Muslim Holocaust and Muslim Genocide ( 32 million Muslim deaths from violence, 5 million, and imposed deprivation, 27 million, in 20 countries invaded by the US Alliance since the US Government’s 9-11 false flag atrocity that killed about 3,000 people) [2, 22, 25].

It must be noted that genocide-ignoring and holocaust-ignoring is far, far worse than repugnant genocide-denying and holocaust-denying because the latter can at least admit the possibility of refutation and public debate. I have done my duty as a citizen of the world  and sent a well-documented war crimes complaint to the genocide-ignoring,  holocaust-ignoring and thus war crimes-complicit ICC [25]. Indeed, in general lying by omission is far, far worse than repugnant lying by commission because at least the latter permits refutation and public debate. The US-beholden ICC and Western Mainstream media, politician and academic presstitutes in general  are involved in massive “fake news through lying by omission” [26-32].

  1. The Iraqi Genocide has been about oil.

The genocide inflicted  on remote and powerless Iraq by the UK and thence by the Zionist-subverted US Alliance was about oil and related Neocon American and Zionist Imperialist (NAZI)  hegemony in the Middle East. Thus from the Right, Alan Greenspan (leading Republican economist,  chairman of the US Federal Reserve for almost two decades, and servant of  four US presidents):

“I am saddened that it is politically inconvenient to acknowledge what everyone knows: the Iraq war is largely about oil” [33].

On the Left, Professor Noam Chomsky (eminent linguistics expert  and anti-racist Jewish American human rights activist at 101-Nobel-Laureate Massachusetts Institute  of Technology (MIT) (2009):

“There is basically no significant change in the fundamental traditional conception that if we can control Middle East energy resources, then we can control the world” [34].

  1. Invasions and subjugations of Iraq were horrendous war crimes.

The ultimate in racism and the ultimate in crime is genocidal invasion of other countries. The British, the French, the Americans and variously UK lackey or US lackey Australia have invaded scores of countries in genocidal enterprises over 2 centuries (the US and Australia) and over the last millennium (the UK and France). In contrast, India has invaded nobody over thousands of years and China has only ever invaded 2 countries, namely Tibet (in the 13th century) and India (in the border region in 1962). The UN Charter forbids invasion of other countries unless the invasion of a country (a) is approved by the UN , (b) is invited by the government of the country, or (c) is in response to invasion by the country to be attacked. These criteria were not satisfied in the illegal invasion of Iraq in 2003 by the US, UK and Australia that was consequently a war crime for which Tony Blair (UK), George Bush(US) and John Howard (US lackey Australia) and their associates should be arraigned before the ICC.

Indeed the same criteria are not satisfied today in the US Alliance invasion of Syria (in contrast, the Russians and Iranians have been invited by the UN-recognised  Syrian Government). The US Alliance and the Iranians been invited in by the Iraqi Government, remembering however, that this was installed “democratically” by the racist and  war criminal Americans after they had  had exiled, imprisoned, tortured, driven underground, mangled or killed the people they really didn’t like (standard practice in the American Empire from Latin America to Korea and Vietnam). The cities of Mosul, Ramadi and Fallujah were “liberated by being destroyed”.

In Australia John Valder (National President of the conservative Liberal Party headed by PM John Howard) declared (2004):

“Bush, Blair, and Howard, as leaders of the three members of the coalition of the willing, inflicted enormous suffering on the people of Iraq. And, as such, they are criminals. I believe the only deterrent to a repetition of the Iraq situation is punishment in some form as war criminals” [35].

US lackeys Blair and Howard went to war on the basis of false US claims of  Iraqi possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). After the invasion no WMD were found but this begs the question of why would a militarily  puny Iraq attack a nuclear-armed UK or a  nuclear–armed UK even if it had WMD.

Anti-racist Jewish British writer Harold Pinter in his 2005 Nobel Prize Acceptance Address stated:

“We have brought torture, cluster bombs, depleted uranium, innumerable acts of random murder, misery, degradation and death to the Iraqi people and call it ‘bringing freedom and democracy to the Middle East’. How many people do you have to kill before you qualify to be described as a mass murderer and a war criminal? One hundred thousand? More than enough, I would have thought. Therefore it is just that Bush and Blair be arraigned before the International Criminal Court of Justice. But Bush has been clever. He has not ratified the International Criminal Court of Justice. Therefore if any American soldier or for that matter politician finds himself in the dock Bush has warned that he will send in the marines. But Tony Blair has ratified the Court and is therefore available for prosecution. We can let the Court have his address if they’re interested. It is Number 10, Downing Street, London” [36].

To paraphrase Harold Pinter,

“How many people do you have to kill before you qualify to be described as a mass murderer and a war criminal? 9 million (1914-2017? 4 million (1914-1950)? 5 million (1990-2011)? 2 million (1990-2003)? 3 million (2003-2011)? 0.4 million (2011-2017)? More than  enough, I would have thought”.

Final comments

It is unlikely the George Bush, Tony Blair, John Howard, their associates and successors – notably war criminal Barack Obama and war criminal Donald Trump – will ever be arraigned before the racist, Iraqi  Genocide-ignoring and Iraqi Holocaust-ignoring International Criminal Court (ICC). What can decent people do? Decent, humane people around the world must

(a) penetrate the Mainstream Media Wall of Silence and tell everyone they can about the ongoing, blood-for-oil  Iraqi Genocide, and

(b) urge and apply Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against all people, politicians, parties, companies, corporations and countries complicit in the ongoing Iraqi Genocide and the ongoing Muslim Genocide.

Dr Gideon Polya taught science students at a major Australian university for 4 decades. He published some 130 works in a 5 decade scientific career, most recently a huge pharmacological reference text “Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds” (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, New York & London , 2003). He has published “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950” (G.M. Polya, Melbourne, 2007: ); see also his contributions “Australian complicity in Iraq mass mortality” in “Lies, Deep Fries & Statistics” (edited by Robyn Williams, ABC Books, Sydney, 2007:


[1]. “Iraqi Holocaust, Iraqi Genocide”: .

[2]. “Muslim Holocaust Muslim Genocide”:

[3]. “Gideon Polya, “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950”, including an avoidable mortality-related history of every country from Neolithic times and is now available for free perusal on the web :  .

[4]. William Blum, “Rogue state”.

[5]. Gideon Polya, “12th anniversary of the illegal invasion if Iraq: the Anglo-American Iraqi Genocide” , Global Research 23 March 2015: .

[6]. “Genocide in Iraq Volume I . The case against the UN Security Council and member states” by Dr Abdul-Haq Al-Ani and Tarik Al-Ani (foreword by Professor Joshua Castellino; Clarity Press, Atlanta).

[7]. Gideon Polya ““Genocide in Iraq, The Case Against UN Security Council And Member States”. Book review”, Countercurrents, 8 February, 2013:  .

[8]. Abdul-Haq Al-Ani and Tariq Al-Ani, “Genocide in Iraq Volume II. The Obliteration of a Modern State” (Clarity Press, 2015).

[9]. Gideon Polya, “Review: “Genocide in Iraq Volume II. The obliteration of a modern state” By Abdul-Haq Al-Ani & Tariq Al-Ani”, Countercurrents, 15 March 2015:  .

[10]. Patrick Cockburn, “The massacre of Mosul: 40,000 feared dead in battle to take back city from Isis as scale of civilian casualties revealed ”, Independent, July, 2017: .

[11].  “UN Genocide Convention”: .

[12]. “Aceh”, Wikipedia: .

[13].  Gideon Polya, “The US Has Invaded 70 Nations Since 1776 – Make 4 July Independence From America Day”, Countercurrents, 5 July, 2013: .

[14]. Gideon Polya, “British Have Invaded 193 Countries:  Make  26 January ( Australia Day, Invasion Day) British Invasion Day”, Countercurrents, 23 January, 2015: .

[15]. Gideon Polya, “As UK Lackeys Or US Lackeys Australians Have Invaded 85 Countries (British 193, French 80, US 70)”, Countercurrents, 9 February, 2015: .

[16]. Gideon Polya, “President Hollande And French Invasion Of Privacy Versus French Invasion Of 80 Countries Since 800 AD”, Countercurrents, 15 January, 2014:  .

[17]. “Stop state terrorism” : .

[18]. “State crime and non-state terrorism”:  .

[19]. Gideon Polya, “Economist Mahima Khanna wins Cambridge Prize”, MWC News, 20 November 2011: .

[20]. “Iraq Population”: .

[21]. “Iraq deaths”,  US Just Foreign Policy:  ;

[22]. Gideon Polya, “Paris Atrocity Context: 27 Million Muslim Avoidable  Deaths From Imposed Deprivation In 20 Countries Violated By US Alliance Since 9-11”, Countercurrents, 22 November, 2015: .

[23]. “Palestinian Genocide”: .

[24]. “Afghan Holocaust Afghan  Genocide”: .

[25]. “Experts: US did 9-11”: .

[25]. “9 January 2010 Formal Complaint by Dr Gideon Polya to the International Criminal Court (ICC) re US Alliance Palestinian, Iraqi, Afghan, Muslim, Aboriginal, Biofuel and Climate Genocides”, Climate genocide”: .

[26]. “Mainstream media censorship”:  .

[27]. “Mainstream media lying”:  .

[28]. Gideon Polya, “Australian ABC and UK BBC fake news through lying by omission”, Countercurrents, 2 May 2017: .

[29]. Gideon Polya, “Mainstream media:  fake news through lying by omission”, Global Research, 2 April 2017:

[30]. “Lying by omission is worse than lying by commission because at least the latter permits refutation and public debate”, Mainstream media lying: .

[31]. “Censorship by the BBC”: .

[32]. Gideon Polya (1998), “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History. Colonial rapacity, holocaust denial and the crisis in biological sustainability”, G.M. Polya, Melbourne, 1998, 2008 that  is now available for free perusal on the web:  .

[33]. Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters, “Greenspan admits Iraq was about oil, as deaths put at 1.2m”, The Observer, 16 September 2007: .

[34]. Noam Chomsky quoted in Sherwood Ross, “Chomsky: Iraq invasion “major crime” designed to control Middle East oil”, The Public Record, 3 November 2009: .

[35]. “Howard is a war criminal,, says former colleague”, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 July 2004: .

[36]. Harold Pinter, “Art, Truth and Politics”, Countercurrents, 8 December 2005: .

Featured image is from the author.

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